ENVINCE: V2G versus Battery swap


Speed of charging, especially for fleets with high usage demands, can prove challenging. The project aims to determine whether the concept of battery swap technology be combined with vehicle to grid technology could provide a viable solution to charging needs while earning additional revenue streams. This would increase the availability of car club vehicles for member use whilst enabling access to energy arbitrage and service markets, potentially creating cost savings and revenue opportunities.

Project approach

Exploring the feasibility of a battery swap car club model with both vehicle to grid and EV battery store to grid. We modelled the usage of the existing car club fleet and applied it to the scenario; a mixed car club solution with free floating car club vehicles that would require their batteries swapping and fixed bay vehicles attached to vehicle to grid charge points. 

The project developed a schedule for optimum performance and assessed whether this would be a viable approach for future development.


There were some promising signs from the results. Explorations commenced with a battery swap provider. They are continuing to develop their technology so this has market potential to revisit in the coming years as the technology in this area matures.

H19 Role

We developed the battery storage charging and discharging models and strategies based on the car club need and market signals. 

We also reviewed the technical issues and limitations which would affect the viability of the concept, alongside the feasibility of battery swapping in the UK.